In Human Resource Management there are five types of training that can be used to engage any employee. But the question is what this training means in HRM? Training is the systematic process of enhancing the job-related skills, attitude and knowledge of personnel. It refers to programs and procedures undertaken with an attempt to improve current or future employee performance.
There are various steps in the training process such as orientation, in-house, mentorship and external training. These training types are used in all the training process steps. The type of training also depends on the resources available for training, company type, priority of the company. Here, in this article we are going to mention all types of training to develop a holistic employee, that enables employees to develop and rise within the organization.
Training of an employee is possible when the employee itself believes that it will improve the behavior and performance of the job in a better way. The various types of training imparted to employee of an organization in Human Resource Management are as follows:
1. Induction Training
Induction training is the initial or orientation of the employee. It enables a new entrant to know the background and present position of his organization. It also creates in him interest in the organization and fosters homely feeling through fellowship with other employees.
Induction training is given by the superior to the new employee to give essential inductor information. It is an important step as it will help the worker adjust easily with the new job and environment of the organization. This training is also making employees familiar with the organization, its policies and to introduce him to his fellow workers, induction is necessary.
The new employee must be properly guided with elementary training about his conduct with superiors, co-workers, his responsibilities etc. and also about other general important aspects to be followed in the organization. Service conditions, various amenities available, hours of work, goods produced, techniques of production and quality of the products are also made known to the new recruit during the induction period.
2. Job training
This type of training is imparted normally by senior workers, supervisors, or special instructors detailed by the management to impart OJT (On the Job Training). This type of training is given for increasing the knowledge of employees to achieve skills for a specified job time to time with which employee is attached.
The actual purpose of job training is to familiarize the employee with all aspects of his job to make him efficient and improves his skill for performing job. To do so, it involves training in each process and technique of production, handling of machines and equipment, best possible use of materials eliminating wastes, job training also covers training which enables a worker to avoid accidents and to remove bottlenecks.
For old employees the purposes are to acquaint them with the latest methods of executing the jobs and further improve their efficiency.
3. Training for promotion
It is no doubt that Promotion provides encouragement to the employees and it is also necessary to fill senior posts. This type of training is done when an employee is promoted to the higher-level job within the organization to shoulder responsibilities of the higher position.
This training is provided to existing employees of the firm to prepare them to perform higher level jobs. They may also be sent to institutions for acquiring specialized knowledge. It is provided to the promoter so that the employee will not feel any difficulty in handling matters in the new positions.
4. Refresher Training
Refresher training is imparted to the employees who are working in the organization to acquaint themselves with the latest methods for performing the job. Since the advancement of technology, the technical staff should refresh their knowledge refresher training that is given to employees for short duration to cope up with the present job requirements.
Employees may be encouraged to attend short courses seminars etc., to update their knowledge.It is also believed that with the passing of time, employees are likely to forget some of the instructions and methods, which they might have learned earlier. This type of training is supposed to revive the earlier learning in the minds of the employees through short-term refresher courses.
5. Crafts Training
This type of training is also known as Apprenticeship training. It is the oldest form of training to train employees in certain skilled crafts, trades, and technical areas. It is commonly found in industries such as metalworking, carpentry, plumbing, and printing. Apprentices are trainees who spend a considerable period of time working with experienced master craftspeople who act as instructors. The training period is not fixed here, it varies according to the craft.
Actually, the training period varies according to the craft. For example, the apprenticeship training period for toolmakers may be a few years, and for machinists a few months. Most apprenticeship programme begin with classroom training that focuses on theory and on auxiliary skills needed to perform the job. Trainees then go on the job.
Apprenticeship training is essentially a method of developing skilled workmen. The training is basically on the job in nature. In addition to providing basic and practical training, apprentices should be trained to develop leadership qualities, cooperativeness, justice, tolerance, and an interest in personal problems.
The main objectives of training and development are increased productivity, quality improvement, reduction in learning time, safety, reduction in labour turnover and keeping oneself updated with technology. The quality of employees and their development through training and education are major factors in determining the long-term profitability of any company.
If the company hires and keeps good employees, it is a good policy to invest in the development of their skills, so that they can increase their productivity. Training often is considered for new employees; this is a mistake as ongoing training for current employees helps them adjust to rapidly changing job requirements.
Enhancing the company’s ability to adopt and use advances in technology because of sufficiently knowledgeable staff building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team which enhances the company’s competitive position and improves employee morale.